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The high-pressure cutter test facility is capable of performing single/double cutter experimentations under varying pressurized environments, RPM, depth of cut and cutter geometric parameters. The cell can accept samples to ten inches in diameter and twelve inches in length. Three independently variable pressures to 15,000 psi can be applied to the sample corresponding to the borehole, overburden and pore pressures. The sample can be rotated within the cell while subjected to various pressures by means of a variable speed drive. Several cell closure heads are available allowing a variety of different experiments to be conducted. The test cell is enclosed in an explosion-proof room for safety.
The rig is located in a 50-ft tower and can accept tools up to 25 ft in length. The unit is hydraulically powered with variable control on weight and rotary speed. The circulating system can work through one of two independent units, a duplex pump or a centrifugal unit. The maximum kelly stroke length is 10 ft, with other capacities as follows: rotary speed up to 200 rpm, torque up to 3,000 ft-lbs, maximum flow rate of 230 gpm, pressure up to 2,000 psi, and weight on bit up to 50,000 lbs.
The data acquisition system consists of a set of measuring and control devices all around the tower, as well as a reliable PC-based data logger in a control room. The pressure cell can accept rock samples up to 14 inches in diameter and 48 inches in length. A maximum differential pressure of up to 2,500 psi can be applied.
In order to perform state of the art research on geomechanics, the University of Tulsa Drilling Research Projects acquired a Tri-axial Rock Mechanics Testing Facility. Utilizing the new facility, different types of tri-axial tests can be conducted with independent control of axial stress, confining pressure, pore pressure at the top and bottom of rock sample, and lateral and axial strains. Taking the advantage of independent pore pressure control at both specimen ends, accurate permeability measurement tests can be performed under simulated in-situ stress conditions.
To simulate the real in-situ condition, this new large-scale true triaxial cell was constructed in TUDRP. Using this facility, a large size of sample can be used to arrest fracture and three independent stresses can be applied. The injection pressure can go up to 4000 psi and the horizontal stresses can go up to 2000 psi. It is a powerful facility to work on hydraulic fracturing and wellbore strengthening related projects. The sonic system was also added to capture the fracture propagation.
Shale-Fluid Interaction Test Cell (SFITC) provides the understanding of the time-dependent shale-fluid interaction and answers the questions such as which drilling fluid to use for drilling a particular shale and how long the borehole can be exposed to a particular fluid without causing shale instability.
The facility consists of four main components including data collection system, pressure vessel, control system and flow loop. The pressure vessel is able to tolerate up to 10,000 psi pressure. Three independently variable pressures can be applied to the shale sample corresponding to confining, circulation and overburden pressure. Fluctuation of the pressure provided is within 2% percent and the fluctuation of the test temperature can be maintained within.
The large indoor flow loop is used to study the effects of annular velocity, inclination angle, eccentricity and drill pipe rotation on barite sag, cement displacement and cuttings transport performance.
Main Components of flow loop are: A transparent casing with inner diameter of 4 inch (0.1016 m) and with length of length 35 ft (10.67 m), inner pipe with outer diameter of 2 inch (0.05m), a 50 gal (0.189 cubic meter) mud tank, a 15 horsepower centrifugal mud pump, a motor for rotating the inner pipe, two mass flow meters, pressure transducers, heater and a computer-based data acquisition system. Cuttings can be circulated as well.
The SIFL has a transparent 12-ft long section test section made of a 2-inch polycarbonate tube and a 1-inch inner pipe (stainless steel pipe). There are two centrifugal pumps in series with maximum capacity of 32 gpm (base fluid) that are used to circulate the fluid in the flow loop.
The pump flow rate is automatically controlled by varying the motor speed using a variable frequency drive (VFD). A 4-inch diameter polyurethane hydrocyclone is used to separate cuttings from test fluid. Cuttings injection/collection tank is placed at the bottom of the hydro cyclone to collect cuttings. Cuttings are injected from the same tank into the flow loop. A 20-gallon mixing tank is used to prepare and circulate the test fluid. Differential pressure transducers are installed to measure the pressure loss in the test section. Data measured from the flow loop are monitored and recorded through a data acquisition system. The flow rate and drill pipe rotation can be automatically controlled.
The TUDRP Low Pressure Ambient Temperature (LPAT) flow loop is one of the largest flow loops in the world. It contains all components of a real rig mud system, including mud tank with agitators, hopper, shale shaker, flow lines and pumps. Experiments related to cuttings transport can be conducted using this flow loop.
The test section is 100 feet long, consisting of a transparent acrylic outer casing (8 in. ID) and an aluminum inner drill pipe (4.5 in OD). The test section can be inclined from 0 to 90 degrees from vertical. A centrifugal pump provides a maximum of 700 gpm flow rate from a 100 barrel mud tank. To rotate the drill pipe a motor is installed. A torque meter is coupled between the motor and the drill pipe to measure the torque on the drill pipe. Cuttings are injected into the annulus through an injection system at the bottom of the injection tank, and separated from drilling fluid by an industrial shale shaker and then collected into the collection tank. A new cutting injection mechanism is installed. This new unit is smaller in size and more efficient than the previous one. Fluid flow rate, solids injection and collection rates, differential pressure and many other real-time parameters can be monitored and collected by “Lab view” data acquisition system.
The Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (ACTF) is a large-scale experimental facility for investigation of the hydraulics and cuttings transport properties of both compressible and incompressible fluids at elevated temperatures and pressures. Furthermore, the "drilling section" includes a rotating drillpipe and an articulated mast for studies at 90 to 45 degrees elevation. This makes it possible to transport simulated cuttings through an annular space at any wellbore inclination angle with variable drillpipe rotational speeds.
The ACTF was designed to function as a surface wellbore simulator for improved hydraulics, cuttings transport and underbalanced drilling study. This allowed the flow of liquids up to 300 gpm at ambient temperatures and at pressures up to 2000 psig. It provides elevated temperature capability (up to 200 F) as well as cuttings transport, aeration and foam capability, drill pipe rotation, and wellbore inclination. The inclination test loop occupies a concrete pad 40 feet by 125 feet, not including a control building. The Drilling Section is 75 feet long and can be interchanged to different casing and drill pipe diameters. The current casing diameter is 6-inch and the drill pipe is 3 ½-inch.
The horizontal buckling facility is used to simulate the buckling behavior and axial force transfer of tubular inside horizontal wellbores. It consists of an acrylic tubing that serves as wellbore, inner pipe, loading/rotating assembly, load cells at both ends and a displacement transducer. The inner diameter of the outer pipe is 2 in., and the load cells at both ends have the range of 0-1000 lbs. The length of tested section is 91 ft, long enough to simulate the buckling behavior of an infinite pipe. The loading/rotating assembly is used to rotate the inner pipe and apply axial load. The back and forth motion of the assembly and the loading or unloading of the inner pipe is controlled by a rotary motor with variable speed. Rotation speed is also controlled by means of another rotary motor with variable speed. Displacement of inner pipe under consideration is measured by a linear variable displacement transducer (LVDT). Data from both load cells and LVDT are monitored and recorded via Lab View simultaneously for posterior analysis. System allows fluid circulation through the annular section to simulate more realistic scenarios.
Dynamic testing on fluid flow is conducted in this facility. It has a progressing cavity pump (Moyno Pump) and two centrifugal pumps. Tests with different temperature range are handled with the help of temperature control unit.
The small scale flow loop provides the capability to circulate fluids under different conditions. This allows us to do controlled research year-round testing preliminary theories, developing new equipment, while leaving larger full-scale test loops available.
These rheometers have a high-precision bearings for superior rotation control. Data are analyzed and export with the rhoemeter software. Different measuring systems (plate, mixer and cylinder type) are hold in the laboratory. Besides the standart rheological characterization such as; step change of shear rate or stress applications, more complex rheological experiments like viscoelastic tests are conducted on these rheometers.
The drillpipe testing facility is used to test fatigue resistance. It has full instrumentation to measure the stress cycle and the point of crack initiation.
The Foam Generator and Viscometer Apparatus and Process (U.S. Patent No. 6,807,849) was invented to provide us with a research tool which would quantify the rheological properties of foam. This equipment allows us to accurately adjust the amounts and types of liquids and gasses which go into making foam and allows us to regulate the amount of energy which is used to create the foam.
We can quantify the resulting foam via microphotography and computer analysis for bubble size, distribution, quantity and shape. A flow-through rheometer allows us to quantify the foam while setting the desired rate of shear and measure viscosity and shear stress among other properties. The Apparatus can operate at pressures up to 1500 psi and temperatures to 300 degrees Fahrenheit.
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